In information technology, a neural network is a system of hardware and/or software patterned after the operation of neurons in the human brain. Neural networks — also called artificial neural networks — are a variety of deep learning technologies. Commercial applications of these technologies generally focus on solving complex signal processing or pattern recognition problems. Examples of significant commercial applications since 2000 include handwriting recognition for check processing, speech-to-text transcription, oil-exploration data analysis, weather prediction and faci

al recognition.

A neural network usually involves a large number of processors operating in parallel and arranged in tiers. The first tier receives the raw input information — analogous to optic nerves in human visual processing. Each successive tier receives the output from the tier preceding it, rather than from the raw input — in the same way neurons further from the optic nerve receive signals from those closer to it. The last tier produces the output of the system.

Each processing node has its own small sphere of knowledge, including what it has seen and any rules it was originally programmed with or developed for itself. The tiers are highly interconnected, which means each node in tier n will be connected to many nodes in tier n-1 — its inputs — and in tier n+1, which provides input for those nodes. There may be one or multiple nodes in the output layer, from which the answer it produces can be read.

Neural networks are notable for being adaptive,which means they modify themselves as they learn from initial training and subsequent runs provide more information about the world. The most basic learning model is centered on weighting the input streams, which is how each node weights the importance of input from each of its predecessors. Inputs that contribute to getting right answers are weighted higher.Typically, a neural network is initially trained, or fed large amounts of data. Training consists of providing input and telling the network what the output should be. For example, to build a network to identify the faces of actors, initial training might be a series of pictures of actors, non-actors, masks, statuary, animal faces and so on. Each input is accompanied by the matching identification, such as actors’ names, “not actor” or “not human” information. Providing the answers allows the model to adjust its internal weightings to learn how to do its job better. For example, if nodes David, Dianne and Dakota tell node Ernie the current input image is a picture of Brad Pitt, but node Durango says it is Betty White, and the training program confirms it is Pitt, Ernie will decrease the weight it assigns to Durango’s input and increase the weight it gives to that of David, Dianne and Dakota.

In defining the rules and making determinations — that is, each node decides what to send on to the next tier based on its own inputs from the previous tier — neural networks use several principles. These include gradient-based training, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms and Bayesian methods. They may be given some basic rules about object relationships in the space being modeled. For example, a facial recognition system might be instructed, “Eyebrows are found above eyes,” or “moustaches are below a nose. Moustaches are above and/or beside a mouth.” Preloading rules can make training faster and make the model more powerful sooner. But it also builds in assumptions about the nature of the problem space, which may prove to be either irrelevant and unhelpful or incorrect and counterproductive, making the decision about what, if any, rules to build in very important.

Neural networks are sometimes described in terms of their depth, including how many layers they have between input and output, or the model’s so-called hidden layers. They can also be described by the number of hidden nodes the model has or in terms of how many inputs and outputs each node has. Variations on the classic neural-network design allow various forms of forward and backward propagation of information among tiers.

Artificial neural networks were first created as part of the broader research effort around artificial intelligence, and they continue to be important in that space, as well as in research around human cognition and consciousness.




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